Clomiphene- Interactions occuring with Clomiphene

Type of Drug:

Ovulation stimulant.

How the Clomiphene Works:

Clomiphene produces a “false signal” that estrogen levels are low. The body responds by increasing the secretion of hormones (eg, gonadotropins) from the pituitary gland. These hormones stimulate the ovaries, causing the ovarian follicle to mature, resulting in ovulation (release of the egg). Clomiphene is not a steroid.

Effectiveness is documented but unpredictable. In clinical trials, pregnancy occurred in approximately 30% of women with ovulation problems who received clomiphene.

Uses of The Clomiphene:

To treat female ovulatory dysfunction (infertility) when the patient desires pregnancy, the sexual partner is fertile and potent, and the patient has normal liver function and normal estrogen levels.

Ovulatory dysfunction due to thyroid or adrenal conditions will not respond to clomiphene.

Unlabeled Uses: Occasionally doctors may prescribe clomiphene citrate for male infertility.

Before therapy: A complete pelvic examination is mandatory prior to treatment and repeated before each course. Clomiphene is not used in the presence of an ovarian cyst; further enlargement may occur. Other lab tests may also be required.

Multiple births: The risk of a multiple pregnancy is increased approximately 6 times when clomiphene is given. In 2369 pregnancies associated with clomiphene therapy, 92.1 % were single and 6.9% wore twins. The remainder resulted in triplets or more. Of the multiple pregnoncios, 96% to 99% were live births.

Eyes: Blurring or other visual symptoms, such as spots or flashes may occur. Use caution while driving or operating machinery, especially in variable light. If visual symptoms occur, discontinue treatment and call your doctor about a complete eye evaluation.

Over stimulation of the ovary: The lowest effective dose is used to reduce the risk of abnormal ovarian enlargement. Mild to moderate ovarian enlargement, with or without bloating or stomach pain, may occur and generally goes away within 2 or 3 weeks after discontinuing this medicine. All patients who experience bloating or stomach pain should be examined for ovarian enlargement. If significant ovarian enlargement occurs after ovulation, do not engage in sexual intercourse.

Pregnancy: Do not use during pregnancy. The risk of use in a pregnant woman clearly outweighs any possible benefit. Consult your doctor if pregnancy is suspected. Clomiphene may be linked to birth defects.

Breastfeeding: It is not known if clomiphene appears in breast milk. How­ever, it may reduce lactation. Consult your doctor before you begin breastfeeding ..

Side Effects of Clomiphene:

Every drug is capable of producing side effects. Many patients experience no, or minor, side effects. The frequency and severity of side effects depend on many factors including dose, duration of therapy, and individual susceptibility. Possible side effects include:

Eyes or Ocular: Blurred vision; spots or flashes of light; sensitivity to light; double vision.

Digestive Tract: Nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; stomach pain.

Nervous System: Headache; dizziness; light-headedness; nervousness; feeling of whirling motion (vertigo); sleeplessness.

Other: Multiple pregnancy; pregnancy; hot flushes; flushing; abnormal uterine bleeding; breast tenderness; ovarian enlargement; pelvic discomfort; distention or bloating; weight gain.

Guidelines for Use:

  • Dosage is individualized. Use exactly as prescribed.
  • Do not stop taking or change the dose, unless instructed by your doctor.
  • If a dose is missed, take it as soon as possible. If several hours have passed or it is nearing time for the next dose, do not double the dose to catch up, unless instructed by your doctor. If more than one dose is missed or it is necessary to establish a new dosage schedule, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
  • Each course of clomiphene should be started on or about the fifth day of the menstrual cycle. Wait 30 days between courses.
  • Properly timed intercourse is important for good results.
  • Intercourse should be prohibited in patients in whom significant ovarian enlargement occurs after ovulation.
  • Notify your doctor immediately if you experience bloating, stomach or pelvic pain, blurred vision, weight gain, yellowing of skin or eyes, hot flushes, breast discomfort, headache, difficulty breathing, decreased uri­nation, nausea, or vomiting.
  • May cause dizziness, light-headedness, and visual disturbances. Use caution while driving or performing tasks requiring alertness, coordination, or physical dexterity, particularly in variable lighting.
  • Multiple pregnancy is possible and poses potential hazards.
  • The likelihood of conception diminishes with each succeeding course of therapy. If pregnancy has not been achieved after three courses of treatment, further treatment is not recommended. Long-term cyclic therapy is not recommended.
  • Do not use this medicine if you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant. A reliable pregnancy test should be administered before starting therapy to avoid taking this medicine during early pregnancy.
  • Lab tests will be required to monitor therapy. Be sure to keep appointments.
  • Store at room temperature (59 0 to 86°F) away from heat, light, and moisture.

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