How Does Glucagon - Guidelines Works?

Type of Drug:A blood glucose (sugar) elevating agent.

How the Glucagon Products Works:

Glucagon is a natural hormone that is released from the pancreas. It elevates blood sugar in a variety of ways (eg, inhibition of glucogen synthesis, enhanced formation of glucose from noncarbohydrates and fat, increased hydrolysis of glucogen to glucose).

Uses of The Glucagon:

Used to treat severe hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels). Because patients with type 1 diabetes may have less of an increase in blood glucose levels compared with a stable type 2 diabetes patient, a supplementary carbohydrate should be given as soon as possible, especially to a pediatric patient.

Used as a diagnostic aid in the x-ray examination of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and colon when decreased intestinal motility is desired.

Unlabeled Uses: Occasionally doctors may prescribe glucagon for treatment of an overdose of propranolol and in cardiovascular emergencies (eg, severely reduced heart rates).


Do not use in the following situations: Allergy to glucagon or any of its ingredients.

Use with caution in the following situations: pheochromocytoma, active or history of tumor of the pancreas, history of Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels): Although glycogen may be used for emergency treatment of low blood sugar levels, notify your doctor so that adjustments in insulin dose and dietary factors can be made. In addition, patients should be given food after they become conscious and alert. Frequently self monitor blood glucose so that blood sugar levels are not allowed to get too low.

Pregnancy: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Use only if clearly needed and the potential benefits to the mother outweigh the possible hazards to the fetus.

Breastfeeding: It is not known if glycogen appears in breast milk. Consult your doctor before you begin breastfeeding.

Children: Safety and effectiveness for use in the treatment of hypoglycemia in children have been established.

Lab Tests: Lab tetras will be required to monitor therapy. Tests include blood glucose levels.

Drug Interactions:

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking or planning to take any over- the-counter or prescription medications or dietary supplements while taking glucagon. Doses of one or both drugs may need to be modified or a different drug may need to be prescribed. Oral anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) interact with glucagon.

Side Effects of Glucagon:

Every drug is capable of producing side effects. Many glucagon users experience no, or minor, side effects. The frequency and severity of side effects depend on many factors including dose, duration of therapy, and individual susceptibility. Possible side effects include: Nausea; vomiting; hives; low blood pressure; difficulty breathing.

Guidelines for Use:

  • Carefully read the patient instructions provided with the product.
  • All patients with. diabetes should have a Glucagon Emergency Kit. Low blood sugar (conscious patent)- Consume fast-acting sugars (eg, B-D Glucose, Glutose).
  • Low blood sugar (unconsciouspati.ent) Intravenous (IV; into a vein) glucose use is encouraged, if available and feasible. If not, glucagon is the treatment of choice. Instruct friends, coworkers, and family members of patients with diabetes how to administer glucagon. Prompt treatment is essential.
  • The patient will usually awaken within 15 minutes of glucagon use. If not, repeat the dose. Upon awakening, give the patient food (eg, a carbohydrate) as soon as possible and follow the usual dietary regimen.
  • The glucagon emergency kit has a diluting fluid in a.unit (one) dose syringe. This diluting fluid is injected into a vial of the glucagon Crystals. The vial is then shaken and the contents brought back into the syringe. The glucagon crystals now in the diluting fluid are given IV, intra­muscularly (IM; into a muscle), or subcutaneous (SG; undertheskin).
  • Notify your doctor if you experience a hypoglycemic reaction $0 that your treatment regimen may be adjusted if necessary.
  • Lab tests will be required. Be sure to keep appointments.
  • Store at controlled room temperature (68° to 77° F) before mixing with the diluting fluid.
  • Use glucagon immediately after it has been mixed with the diluting fluid because the drug is stable for only a short time. Discard any unused portion.

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